Hello, welcome to the official website of Chiyun Intelligent Equipment (Shanghai) Co., LTD!

Committed to intelligent handling services, fast, safe and efficient efforts

  • 卡车装载解决方案
  • 卡车装载解决方案

Truck Handling Solutions

  • Loading and unloading trailers is complex. There are many best practices and many rules and regulations to consider when loading trailers. In the rapidly changing logistics world, operators must not only implement these two processes efficiently but also safely.


Loading and unloading trailers is complex. There are many best practices and many rules and regulations to consider when loading trailers. In the rapidly changing logistics world, operators must not only implement these two processes efficiently but also safely.

Now let's look at different types of trailers, weights and payloads, unit loading devices (ULDs), equipment for moving pallets, and how to safely move pallets around warehouses and between trailers. We start with different types of trailers

Different types of trailers

The logistics operator will transport goods, materials or other items in one type of trailer or another type of trailer according to the needs of the company. The following are some different types of trailers you will encounter when dealing with logistics operators.

Box trailer

Box trailer is one of the most common trailer types in road transport. Usually, the company will use these to transport high-quality goods or clothes on the clothes rack. The dimensions may vary, but you can find a trailer with an internal length of about 13.62 meters, a width of 2.46 meters, and a height of 2.7 meters. The box trailer can provide logistics operators with a cubic capacity of about 90 cubic meters and a payload capacity of about 31400 kilograms.

Refrigerated trailer

As you might imagine, a refrigerated trailer is a trailer that can control the temperature. Typically, these trailers will be box trailers. You will also see the term "reefer trailer" used when referring to a refrigerated trailer. These types of trailers are ideal for transporting food, beverages, medicines and other temperature sensitive items. They help to maintain optimal condition during transportation until they reach their final destination.

The dimensions of refrigerated container trailers may vary more with other types of trailers. They can have dimensions similar to box trailers, such as an internal length of 13.31 meters, a width of 2.48 meters, and a height of about 2.60 meters. They may have a payload of about 31000 kilograms and a cubic capacity of about 85 cubic meters.

Curtain side trailer

Operators from all walks of life use curtain trailers. These trailers provide operators with services to transport various goods.

The designer of the curtain wall trailer specially designed this type of trailer, so that users can easily access the goods. The truck has canvas curtains on the guide rail at the side of the trailer, so that logistics professionals can pull the curtains back and easily load or unload the trailer, and use a forklift to perform this operation when necessary. Behind the curtains, you will find a flat deck with rails supporting the roof of the trailer. The trailer will have a rigid rear, which may also include a door and a sturdy headboard.

The size of the curtain side trailer can be similar to the box trailer, providing a possible payload of about 32800 kg and about 91 m ³ The cubic capacity of. You may find that their internal length is about 13.62 meters, width is 2.48 meters, and height is 2.70 meters.

European airliner

Euroliners are curtain trucks or trailers that can transport a variety of goods because they are multifunctional. Regardless of the nature of the cargo, the operator can easily load and unload these trailers. Euroliners have a sliding roof, sliding curtains, sturdy rear doors and sturdy sides. Operators can load and unload through sliding curtains, back doors and (if they use overhead cranes) sliding roofs.

In terms of size, the cubic capacity of Euroliner is about 85 m ³, The design gross weight is approximately 39000 to 41000 kg. The internal length of these trailers is about 13.62 meters, the internal width is 2.48 meters, and the total height is about 4 meters.

Double deck trailer

As the name implies, the double deck trailer provides two layers of storage, increasing the number of pallets that logistics operators can transport in a single shipment. This makes them an environmentally friendly, cost-effective alternative for companies, and they are often used to distributing light to medium weight goods.

The double decker trailer provides a higher payload, from a 66 euro pallet to an 86 euro pallet, and there will also be cargo space in the neck of the trailer. They can provide an internal length of about 13.60 meters, a width of 2.5 meters, an internal height of 1.5, and a weight of about 1900 kilograms. Double decker trailers in the UK can accommodate about 52 pallets, while EU trailers may require anywhere between 66 and 86 pallets, depending on the trailer.

Weights and payloads in different countries

When loading a vehicle, the payload is an important consideration. This is the weight that the vehicle can safely carry, excluding the weight of the vehicle itself. The weight of the vehicle without any load is the curb weight, which can be added safely

The weight is called the maximum gross weight.

It is important to understand these because operators and the public must comply with certain restrictions when handling their trailers. Exceeding the legal limit will make the vehicle unsafe on the road. If the vehicle does exceed the weight limit, drivers may find it difficult to stop the truck in an emergency, or they may find it more difficult to drive the vehicle.

It is also in the interests of operators to comply with restrictions so that they can protect the axles of their vehicles.

Tractive capacity

Traction capacity is the maximum weight that a vehicle can tow. The towing capacity of a truck is the gross vehicle weight rating (GCVWR) - the maximum gross weight of the loaded truck plus the weight of the trailer minus the curb weight of the truck.

Knowing the tongue weight of the trailer is important because you must consider the weight of the trailer portion of the truck payload. The tongue weight is typically 10 to 15 percent of the trailer weight. This means that you must calculate the empty weight of the trailer, add up the weight of the load, and then calculate 15% of this figure. Then, remove the 15% from the maximum payload.


Since trucks may be of different sizes, they can handle weights as well. In the UK, the number of axles owned by trucks is an important factor. The maximum gross weight of a small truck with two axles may exceed 3.5 tons and, depending on certain conditions, may be 7.5 tons. Heavy trucks with six axles and certain conditions may have a maximum gross weight of up to 44 tons.

The truck must have the manufacturer's license plate and ministerial license plate. The manufacturer's license plate must bear the name of the manufacturer and show the axle weight, gross weight and train weight of the vehicle that the manufacturer designed to operate. The Bureau of Driver and Vehicle Standards (DVSA) will issue ministerial license plates to trucks over 3500 kg, which indicate the potential maximum legal weight of the vehicle.

European Union (EU)

When transporting goods throughout the European Union, things become complicated, but in the case of extreme distribution of non-uniform load masses, the automobile manufacturer must state the extreme possible location of the centre of gravity of the payload and/or internal equipment accessories.

This will vary by country and number of axles in terms of the maximum permissible mass of the vehicle. This is measured in tonnes. Depending on the weight of the vehicle or other conditions, the range of non drive axles is 10 to 12 for non drive axles and 7 to 12 for drive axles, again determined by the weight of the vehicle or other conditions.

Trucks with two axles will find this weight range between 16 and 21.5, depending on the country and vehicle. The permissible weight of a truck with three axles is slightly higher, between 21.5 and 30.5, also depending on the country and the vehicle.

The maximum permissible weight of an articulated vehicle is much heavier. These range from 36 to 50, depending on country and vehicle conditions.


In the United States, trailers are about 14 to 16 meters (48 to 53 feet) long, 2.4 to 2.74 meters wide, and 4.1 meters high. In terms of capacity, a 14.6 meter long trailer may have a total weight of 20 tons (45000 pounds) and carry 24 pallets, while a 16 meter long trailer may have the same total weight capacity but be able to carry up to 26 pallets.

Typically, a flatbed trailer rewards you for the best payload, while a dry truck trailer must include fiberglass panels on the top of the body to reduce the payload. Refrigerated trailers are even heavier because manufacturers must install them to keep the cargo cool or frozen with insulating material. They must also have a large refrigeration motor in the front of the trailer and an additional fuel tank under the trailer.

It is worth noting that some states have weight bearing restrictions on intra state commerce. These allow higher payloads if the operator installs additional axles to the vehicle. According to federal regulations, the upper limit for trucks is 36.2 tons (80 000 pounds) gross weight, 9 tons (20 000 pounds) single axle, and 15.4 tons (34 000 pounds) tandem axle groups. There are no height restrictions at the federal level.

Ensure truck loading safety and transportation safety

When the load is fixed, the system used to fix the load shall be suitable for the load and the vehicle. Possible systems that can be used to protect loads include:

Load the vehicle correctly

You should stack the loads on the headboard and keep the center of gravity as low as possible. In order to reduce the risk of load falling during unloading, please ensure that it is stable without binding. If not, consider how to support it. Distillers, placed in boxes or transport frames, are three possible ways.

Also think about how you can prevent the load from moving forward, or if the item can slide past it if it is not against the headboard. Blocking, sails, wedges or additional lashing are possible necessary options.

Select the correct method to fix the load

The fixing method must fix the load to the vehicle chassis. You should choose a system that prevents the movement of the load, but does not create other risks, such as manual operation or working at height. This is because not all loads are the same.

Please note that the operator often uses webbing or chains to fix the load; However, these are not suitable for every situation. To prevent damage, fragile or live loads will require different methods of securing.


Direct binding is usually used for plant equipment and machinery. Typically, the operator can connect these to the load and then to the lashing point or vehicle chassis. To keep the load safe, these applications are in the opposite alignment.

At the same time, friction binding is used for many different types of loads. They will be transferred from one side of the load to the other, and the binding angle should be as close to vertical as possible. If the load is low, consider placing a tray on its top to increase the perpendicularity of the binding.

The number of lashings you need to use will depend on:

Load weight;

Friction between load and load bed;

Binding grade;

The angle of binding relative to the load bed;

The number of tensioners you are using.


Forklift is a simple and effective way to load trucks, trailers, railway vehicles and elevators. During the loading and unloading process, the forklift driver is responsible for the safety and security of the goods on the forklift, as well as the safety and security of any pedestrians in the area, including the driver transporting the goods. The forklift driver shall ensure that there is a safe distance around the truck when operating the forklift.


Like forklifts, stackers, also known as "stackers", are designed to lift heavy objects. They can handle about 5 tons, which makes it easier to transport large items and large stacks of pallets. They have a hydraulic pump or winch that can raise the load to about 2.85 meters (9.3 feet). Some manufacturers design stackers to be used with ladders when using higher storage units for handling.

Stackers operate almost like forklifts. The stacker is equipped with forks that you can lock in pallets to lift them off the ground. You will use a hydraulic pump or winch (regardless of which pump or winch is installed on the stacker) to lift the pallet.

If you are using a hydraulic manual stacker, you will use the lever activated by the pump to lift the fork off the ground by activating the jack. If you are using a winch operated pallet stacker, you will rotate the winch connected to a solid wire cable or link chain to operate the stacker. This type of stacker can lift and lower the load faster than the hydraulic stacker, and the manufacturer also provides them with special brakes to prevent accidental lowering, so you can fully control the stacker.

Pallet truck

Unlike stackers, pallet carriers (also known as "pallet carriers") are not designed for stacking. Their low height lifting does not exceed 20 cm, which is most suitable for handling goods and transporting pallets on the ground. Pallet carriers can be manual, semi electric or electric, and their use and application are very simple.

You will often see operators in food processing industry, wholesale and retail trade and transportation industry. Depending on the type of cargo and load you are moving, your pallet carrier may have long forks, made of stainless steel or other specific materials, equipped with optional weighing scales or capable of lifting higher than standard pallet carriers.

Towable trolley

Towable carts are one of the most common ways to transport pallets through the facility. They are fast, convenient and, importantly, safer than forklifts. Trailers can transport a series of pallets to any point or points, allowing you to transport more pallets to more destinations in warehouses or other facilities in a single trip.

These carts are especially important when transporting pallets and large items to the workstation, because if possible, forklifts should not really enter the area where people are working. The trailer is small, providing better visibility, and can pass through the traffic and even the shelf area more safely than the forklift.

The fact that the pallet is already on the cart means that workers can move it without using pallet trucks or stackers. They can move it, process it, and leave it for collection when they are done. The only disadvantage of these carts is that once the pallet reaches its destination, it is impossible to lift or manipulate the pallet.

Tray conveyor

Tray conveyors are excellent at allowing workers to build or pick pallet loads as goods pass through the facility. Typically, manufacturers will use them as palletizers or takeout of the construction process so that pallets can continue to travel through the facility without contact after construction. Conveyors are safer than forklifts and are more efficient if your pallet or other large loads move from one point to another, regardless of whether they stop, but you should remember that they run in a fixed position.

When handling the goods to be shipped, you can put them on the conveyor for transportation to the transport dock, and they can be loaded onto the truck by forklift or other means. This keeps forklifts away from the factory, or at least minimizes their presence in the factory, and makes it easier to control their loading areas. It also retains their function in loading and unloading and excludes them when transporting pallets around the plant.

Use pallet and trailer

Safety is essential when loading or unloading pallets on trailers, especially when using forklifts. Let's take a look at how to safely load and unload your trailer.

Essential inspection to be carried out before loading or unloading

Before loading and unloading goods with a forklift, the operator should perform some important checks and procedures:

Make sure the driver has parked the vehicle correctly and knows that loading or unloading is about to begin.

Confirm that the delivery vehicle engine has been turned off and the driver has removed the key from the igniter. If necessary, block the wheels.

Check whether the trailer bed is clear and whether there are obstacles. You must be able to easily load the pallet or onto the trailer bed.

If you load or unload goods on the ground, please check whether there is enough space on both sides of the vehicle to place the forklift. The ground must be firm and even. There should be no potholes or well covers that may damage the stability of the forklift.

If loading or unloading from the carriage, carefully check that the brakes are applied. Due to the great force exerted on the trailer bed by the movement of the forklift, the vehicle may move.

Is the trailer decoupled? You may need a prop or jack to place it under the front of the trailer to prevent it from tipping over during loading and unloading.

Obtain confirmation of the delivery vehicle capacity from the driver to check whether the lathe and bridge deck are strong enough to bear the weight and load of the forklift. To avoid exceeding any limits, forklift operators need to understand both.

Basic rules for safe loading and unloading of vehicles

When loading a trailer, you should follow some basic rules to make the operation safer:

If a forklift is used, the operator should start loading from the front of the vehicle and work backwards on the other side. If you are uninstalling, the process is just the opposite. This reduces the risk of the delivery vehicle overturning.

In order to maximize the carrying capacity of vehicles and prevent skidding and sliding of pallets and goods, pallets and goods should be close together.

Avoid pushing the load from one side to the other. This may cause the transport vehicle to tilt to one side, making it more difficult for the forklift to reintroduce the forklift into the pallet or load. In severe cases, the vehicle may overturn.

The operator shall load in the order of delivery: the first opening is the last closing. This prevents gaps at operator delivery and reduces the need to constantly rearrange the load at each drop off point. Please note that you may need to ignore this rule to get the correct axle weight, because you need to distribute the weight evenly on the axle, and to achieve this, you may not be able to load in the order of delivery.

Remove the pallet from the trailer with a forklift

It is a responsible job to operate the forklift and load the pallet onto the forklift. Care must be taken during operation:

1. Make sure the forklift has stopped completely and the mast is vertical. You should ensure that the arms of the vehicle are perfectly aligned with the pallet removed from the trailer.

2. Approach the pallet at a safe and reasonable speed to avoid damage to the goods. Slowly insert the fork until the pallet reaches the backrest.

3. Once the pallet rests on the backrest, lift it high enough to keep it away from the truck pallet. Look behind you, see that you have a clear road, and there is nothing behind you. After checking, slowly reverse the forklift from the truck or trailer.

4. When you lift the goods from the truck or trailer, lower the load and tilt back. This is to ensure that when you move the forklift to another part of the facility, the goods will not fall off the arm of the forklift.

5. Before transporting the load to the destination, please check again to confirm that there is a clear path. Drive at a proper speed and unload the goods gently to the place where they belong. Repeat this process until you unload all items from the truck or trailer.

Load the pallet onto the trailer with a forklift

Just like unloading a trailer with a forklift, care must be taken when loading pallets onto pallets with these vehicles. Here are the steps to take:

1. Collect goods from the warehouse with the same care as taking goods from the trailer. When you move the pallet, the arm of the forklift must lift it backward to prevent it from falling, but at the same time you should lift it and drive to the trailer reasonably.

2. When you approach the trailer, lower your arm slightly to keep the goods at a balanced angle and lift them at any time. At this time, please check that no one is loading or unloading the trailer, and that the space around you is clear enough to lift the cargo.

3. Slowly lift the goods until they are higher than the height of the trailer. Take a quick look and check that they do not hit the bottom of the trailer. Then move the pallet to the appropriate position and prepare it to be placed on the trailer.

4. Slowly put down the tray until the weight disappears from the arm, and put the tray comfortably on the trailer for the driver to take away. Check that there is no one or nothing behind you, and then slowly back up from the trailer until the forklift arm cannot reach the trailer.

5. Lower the arms to the appropriate height and manoeuvre them to the rear position so that you can move more pallets as needed.

Loading and unloading the trailer must be done effectively, but you must also do it safely. If you want to know how our solutions can help you unload and load a trailer more safely, please contact us. Our team will be happy to advise you on the best solution for your business.

Use our manual and automatic systems to load your truck trailer

We understand how demanding it is to load and unload truck trailers, which is why we have produced several different systems to lighten the load.

Our system allows you to load and operate safely without sacrificing efficiency. Depending on how much you want to invest in the system, you can implement a manual loading system or an automated system.

Manual loading system

Our manual loading system greatly reduces the damage of forklifts, and usually only requires one or two workers to load or unload vehicles. Although the implementation of the system still requires some manual work by workers, this is the minimum and they will be able to quickly load or unload trailers. The manual nature of these loading systems makes them an excellent choice for you to reduce costs but improve logistics efficiency.

Built in roller system

The built-in roller bed is a roller track system that allows you to maximize the internal height, and the lifting capacity of each module is up to 550 kg, enabling you to load pallets of almost any size. You can build this system onto the existing floor of trucks, trailers, and trucks.

The built-in pneumatic sinking roller system is suitable for handling air pallets and containers, as well as most bulk pallets, whether plastic or wood. The heavy steel of roller track enables the system to withstand the movement of forklift and pallet even when the system is not used.

Choosing a fixed roller truck allows you to load air cargo without a forklift and reduces the time it takes to load the pallet onto a trailer or vehicle. Compared with the standard roller system, the workload of the double roller track installed in this system during the loading and unloading process is reduced by 20%.

The automatic lowering of the roller, the quick exhaust valve and the tray stop device make the built-in roller very safe. When set in the down position, the rollers are completely below the top plating opening, which means that people can walk through them without tripping. The operation of the system is also carried out outside the trailer, using the pendant control as an option.

Modular roller system

The modular nature of our roller system means that you can install it on any flat surface, whether it is a trailer floor or a truck, factory workshop or warehouse. They are also easy to install. We can complete this operation for you in a few hours, so you can quickly start to enjoy the advantages of the system, such as faster loading and unloading and the ability to complete this operation without the help of a forklift.

You can use these systems to load air cargo, ULD containers or standard pallets, just roll the cargo in or out. When you want to use the system, just lift the roller; And reduce them during the transportation of goods. The automatic lowering/raising during loading makes the system very safe.

Skateboarding and Track and Field

Skating and track systems can withstand weights up to 3.5 tons and are designed for trucks or light vehicles. It is ideal for moving pallets, drums, machinery and other heavy goods or items into or out of trucks. The system uses a set of manually operated skates that run on special tracks built into the trailer or container floor. This saves you from having to drive the forklift into the shipping area because you push the pallet into the truck to load or pull the pallet to unload it. Since you do not need to use a forklift to load or unload the trailer, the cargo will suffer less damage during loading and unloading.

Skates and tracks can help you really make the most of the space in your trailer. You can also optimize the use of logistics workers, because only one or two can use this system for loading and unloading.

Power cargo loading system

The power cargo loading system is a kind of roller system, including rising and falling rollers combined with pneumatic rollers. You can use this system to load AKE containers and air cargo onto trucks. The power cargo drum can handle flat bottom ULD containers and transport pallets, weighing up to 20000 kg, without causing any damage. You can also use it to load aeroengines or other heavy loads.

This is a safe and environmentally friendly system that does not require the use of forklifts to load trucks. The system retracts during transport to make the load more stable, and the brake motor stops any roll when the motor is not applied.

You can use this system to automatically load air freight containers without side loading. Instead, you load the tray from the scissor conveyor through the rear of the vehicle.

Automatic loading system

If you are willing to invest more, you can buy one of our automation systems. These require even less worker effort than our manual loading solutions. Just press a button to get things going.

Mobile floor conveyor system

The mobile floor system is a heavy and flexible slatted conveyor belt system, which can transport pallet cargo, non pallet cargo and crated cargo to or from the trailer. You can connect the system to the line conveyor, or you can use an automated guided vehicle (AGV) or forklift to place the goods on the conveyor belt and then load or unload the trailer in just a few minutes.

The system is completely safe during loading and unloading, and since you do not need any workers to load or unload the trailer, it can provide 100% automation at the end of the production line. The automated nature of the system means that you will be able to minimize any damage to the load.

Slippery firewood

The slide chain is an excellent heavy-duty system for loading and unloading pallet cargo. The system combines a pneumatic lifting chain with a roller system for trailers and docks. You can easily integrate this modular system into a trailer with minimal adjustments to the trailer or building and then connect it to the line conveyor or use a forklift or AGV to place items on the system. Then you can begin to enjoy the advantages of the system: 26 pallets can be loaded or unloaded in just a few minutes, while traditional systems take about 30 minutes to complete the operation.

Just like the mobile ground conveyor system, the sliding chain provides 100% automation, so no workers are required to load or unload the trailer. The system is very safe to use when carrying out large loading or unloading, and the items will suffer minimal damage (if any).

Trailer skateboard

Trailer skid is a simple but efficient and efficient loading and unloading equipment, designed for automatic loading of medium and long distance transportation. The only technology in the trailer is the four tracks on the floor. The long skates perform all loading and unloading. Even if the Riserplate system is used, the elevator also comes from the tracks below. The system ensures that the floor is always flat so that forklifts can drive over it if necessary.

Like mobile ground conveyors and slide chains, trailer slides provide 100% end of line automation, so you don't need any workers to assist in loading or unloading trailers. Trailer slide plate makes the routine mass loading and unloading process very safe, and minimizes the damage to the load. Pallets can be loaded or unloaded in just a few minutes.

Loading and unloading the trailer must be done effectively, but you must also do it safely. If you want to know how our solutions can help you unload and load a trailer more safely, please contact us. Our team will be happy to advise you on the best solution for your business.

What is a modular roller bed solution for trailer loading?

Load your trailer in a safer and simpler way using the modular wheel system of Autorun intelligent devices. Our standard trailer and rail systems have pre installed frames that can be easily mounted to your trailer floor and can be completed in a matter of hours.

The system is designed to simplify the loading process, using pneumatically raised rollers that engage only during loading and unloading.

As a result, you can benefit from faster and more efficient loading and safe cargo transportation.


Why choose a modular roller bed loading solution for trailers and trucks?

  • Convert any trailer to a roller car within hours

  • Roll your goods in and out safely without using a forklift

  • When you want to use the roller, lift the roller. Keep them lowered during transportation; The pneumatic drum is much safer than the movable drum.

  • Compared with the standard roller system, the hydraulic double roller track requires 20% less work

  • Double roll design and limited opening of roof roll reduce debris by 30%

  • Reduced maintenance and extended airbag life

  • 100% safe because of the automatic lowering system: up when loading or unloading/down automatically when transporting!



Chiyun Intelligent Equipment (Shanghai) Co., LTDscan



Chiyun Intelligent Equipment (Shanghai) Co., LTD